The term performance is used in this model to indicate productivity as well as other work-related behaviors. But the degree and direction, positive or negative, of these rippling effects are difficult to predict. Organizations are set in the context of a changing, competitive environment in which strategies are developed to guide the efforts of management and workers toward a common vision and set of objectives.
For a variety of reasons, the linkages are seldom one to one. The Goal Alignment model suggests that individuals, groups, and business units are not goal driven, but measurement driven. Thus, many of the factors shown in Figure could be disaggregated into several levels of analysis.
Obviously, they overlap and interact. The measurement system provides a means to check progress toward an objective. Development of a comprehensive theory of individual productivity is too much to ask, but perhaps it can be approached as would building a cathedral—one stone at a time.
The basic components of each of the first three factors in the model are identified in highly simplified form in Figure The measurement system provides an implicit definition of productivity for the operation. Part of the problem may lie in the unit of analysis industry uses to measure productivity and in a failure to recognize the complexity of the relationships between the productivity of the individual worker and the total performance of the organization.
Worker motivation is a complex issue; in taking all of that complexity into consideration, the model suggests that the net incentive should be positive and tied to performance.
They categorized the variables as primary factors, secondary factors, individual factors, organizational controllables, individual and organizational demographics, and bodies of knowledge or files of information. One way to view individual productivity is to consider how the efforts of an individual contribute to the productivity or success of the organization.
But somewhere within the complex interactions of all of these variables lie the determinants of individual productivity. The greater the incentive, the stronger the relationship between the two. Every concept in this chapter assumes that the individual worker and the work group are set in an organizational context that is internally consistent and environmentally consonant.
A multitude of micro studies of individual work behavior exist, but the measure of productivity used is seldom comparable to those developed in industry. Zarathustric Fredric overdeveloped his fraction angrily. For the purposes of this chapter, my definition of productivity includes effectiveness producing the right products or servicesefficiency prudent utilization of resourcesand quality meeting technical and customer specifications.
Productivity measurement provides information on costs, time, output rate, and resource usage to allow decision making with respect to pricing, production scheduling, purchasing, contracting, delivery scheduling, and many other activities in the industrial cycle.
If the measure of productivity is customers served per hour, the emphasis is on speed and throughput, and the waiter will try to complete each transaction as quickly as possible.
Other authors, such as Pritchard Chapter 7 and Campbell Chapter 8have slightly different ways of relating or combining these performance dimensions. Similarly, if the capacity of the task is increased and productivity remains constant or declines, one should look to the antecedents of individual effort or to instances of interference that could be corrected through changes in system variables.
In this case, time is not a factor; the quick turnover of customers would be a disadvantage. In turn, organizational productivity is a function of the productivity of each of the units.
When this potential meets the individual effort, moderated by possible interferences, the actual productivity of the task for a given time period results. Facilitate planning and control: It is quite another to devise and implement measurement systems that can be maximized only by behavior and performance that lead directly to goal accomplishment.
Monitor performance and provide feedback: The fundamental question is not, what productivity measures should be used? My purpose in this chapter is to assimilate knowledge about the measurement and management of individual productivity in order to provide a link in the chain of understanding regarding how individual productivity contributes to group productivity, which in turn contributes to organizational productivity.
The functions of monitoring performance and providing feedback, diagnosing problems, facilitating planning and control, and supporting innovation are common to many types of measures, and productivity is no exception.
The secondary question is, what set of individual productivity measures will direct the behavior of employees to meet those objectives as they work toward their own personal goals? The productivity measurement provides specific direction and guides the worker toward productive activities.
If an incentive system has little or no effect on productivity, one should explore the determinants of the capacity of the task and the individual to see if they are at their technological limits. To some extent, this type of analysis, using even a simple framework such as this one, may help explain the paradox of the lack of productivity improvement from investments in information technology noted in Chapter 2.
Subglobular fantasies An introduction to the analysis of the international brigades that punish with despair?Organizational Linkages: Understanding the Productivity Paradox. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
doi: / Productivity measures at the individual or group level direct behaviors to the business unit goals, if properly aligned.
That is, the individuals or groups will work to the measures; it is the responsibility of. Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors PSY/ Organizational Psychology October 1, Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors Employee behavior can have either positive or negative effects on job performance or the performance of the organization.
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